Safety and immunogenicity of adenovirus-vectored nasal and epicutaneous influenza vaccines in humans

Academic Article


  • The increasing number and density of the human population, the emergence of lethal influenza strains, and the potential use of designer influenza virus as a bioweapon, collectively highlight a critical need for more rapid production of influenza vaccines and less invasive means of delivery. We have developed a nonreplicative adenovirus-vectored influenza vaccine that can be produced without the prerequisite of growing influenza virus. This new class of vaccines can be administered as a nasal spray or skin patch by personnel without medical training. We report here that adenovirus-vectored nasal and epicutaneous influenza vaccines were well tolerated by human volunteers. The nasal vaccine was more potent than its epicutaneous counterpart under the adjuvant-free experimental condition. These results provide the foundation for further human testing of needleless vectored vaccines as promising alternatives to current vaccines. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Published In

  • Vaccine  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Van Kampen KR; Shi Z; Gao P; Zhang J; Foster KW; Chen DT; Marks D; Elmets CA; Tang DCC
  • Start Page

  • 1029
  • End Page

  • 1036
  • Volume

  • 23
  • Issue

  • 8