The increasing number and density of the human population, the emergence of lethal influenza strains, and the potential use of designer influenza virus as a bioweapon, collectively highlight a critical need for more rapid production of influenza vaccines and less invasive means of delivery. We have developed a nonreplicative adenovirus-vectored influenza vaccine that can be produced without the prerequisite of growing influenza virus. This new class of vaccines can be administered as a nasal spray or skin patch by personnel without medical training. We report here that adenovirus-vectored nasal and epicutaneous influenza vaccines were well tolerated by human volunteers. The nasal vaccine was more potent than its epicutaneous counterpart under the adjuvant-free experimental condition. These results provide the foundation for further human testing of needleless vectored vaccines as promising alternatives to current vaccines. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.