© 2016 Vandana et al. Background: Although melioidosis, is an important disease in many Southeast Asian countries and Australia, there is limited data on its prevalence and disease burden in India. However, an increase in case reports of melioidosis in recent years indicates its endemicity in India. Aims and methods: A population-based cross-sectional seroprevalence study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of B. pseudomallei by indirect haemagglutination assay and to investigate the associated risk determinants. Subjects were 711 adults aged 18 to 65 years residing in Udupi district, located in south-western coast of India. Key results: Overall, 29% of the study subjects were seropositive (titer ≥20). Females were twice as likely to be seropositive compared to males. Rates of seroprevalence were similar in farmers and non-farmers. Besides gardening, other factors including socio-demographic, occupational and environmental factors did not show any relationship with seropositive status. Major conclusions: There is a serological evidence of exposure to B. pseudomallei among adults in India. While the bacterium inhabits soil, exposure to the agent is not limited to farmers. Non-occupational exposure might play an important role in eliciting antibody response to the bacterium and may also be an important factor in disease causation.