Background: This pilot study evaluated the effect of videotape-facilitated human patient simulator (HPS) practice and guidance on clinical performance indicators. Method: Nursing and nurse anesthetist students in the treatment group (n = 20) participated in HPS practice and guidance using videotape-facilitated debriefing, and the control group (n = 20) participated in HPS practice and guidance using oral debriefing alone. Results: Students in the intervention group were significantly more likely to demonstrate desirable behaviors concerning patient identification, team communication, and vital signs. The role students played in the simulation significantly impacted their performance. When scores of both the intervention and control groups were combined, team leaders, airway managers, and nurse anesthetists had higher mean total performance scores than crash cart managers, recorders, or medication nurses. Conclusion: Video-facilitated simulation feedback is potentially a useful tool in increasing desirable clinical behaviors in a simulated environment. © 2010 International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning.