In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo studies were performed to investigate the effect of mixing upon the mechanical properties of a two-component tissue adhesive. The hypothesis investigated was that a more complete mixing of the two components would yield an increase in the mechanical performance of the adhesive. This in turn would be demonstrated by improved outcomes in models of clinical sealant application. In vitro stereological analysis of tissue adhesive mixed and delivered by several different applicators demonstrated variation in the amount of mixing provided by each type of delivery system. Ex vivo tensile adhesive strength showed that there was a correlation between the amount of mixing and bonding strength; that is, more thorough mixing demonstrated higher adhesive strength. No significant difference was seen, however, between the different applicator types and impact on in vivo dermal incisional closure strength. There was a correlation, though, in amount of mixing and in vivo hemostasis. In a rabbit spleen incision model, a more thoroughly mixed sealant corresponded with a decrease in time to obtain complete hemostasis, as well as less sealant used. The effects of mixing on tissue-adhesive mechanical performance were influenced somewhat by the amount of mixing provided by the applicator. This effect, however, was dependent upon the sealant formulation and the type of in vivo application. (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.