Critical roles of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in apoptosis and drug resistance



  • The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway plays a critical role in the transmission of signals from growth factor receptors to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. Components of this pathway (e.g., Ras and B-Raf) are frequently mutated in human cancer. Mutations at upstream receptors (e.g., epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR] and Flt-3) and chimeric chromosomal translocations (e.g., BCR-ABL), which transmit their signals through the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK cascade were also frequently observed in human cancer. This pathway also interacts with other signaling pathways (e.g., PI3K/PTEN/Akt) to regulate cell growth. In some cells, mutation of PTEN may contribute to suppression of Raf/MEK/ERK because of the ability of Akt to phosphorylate and inactivate Raf-1. Other regulatory components of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway (e.g., the Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein, RKIP) may display altered expression during metastasis, which lead to activation of the pathway. This chapter describes the roles of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in signal transduction, prevention of apoptosis and induction of drug resistance. © 2007 Humana Press Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    International Standard Book Number (isbn) 10

  • 1588296776
  • International Standard Book Number (isbn) 13

  • 9781588296771
  • Pubmed Id

  • 23377352
  • Start Page

  • 101
  • End Page

  • 134
  • Volume

  • 2