Purpose: To examine the antagonistic effects of anti-extracellular matrix metalloprotease inducer (anti-EMMPRIN) antibody when combined with chemotherapy using a hypovascular pancreatic tumor model. Procedures: Severely compromised immunodeficient mice bearing orthotopic MIA PaCa-2 tumors were used (five to six animals per group). Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine the relationship between tumor vascularity and size. Therapy was initiated when tumors were hypovascular. Treatments included: (1) gemcitabine alone, (2) anti-EMMPRIN antibody alone, and (3) combination, each for 2 weeks. Additionally, another treatment arm included β-lapachone, an NAD(P)H/quinone 1 (NQO1) bioactivated agent. 18F-fluoro-D-glucose- positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging was used weekly to monitor therapeutic effects. Results: Gemcitabine or anti-EMMPRIN monotherapy significantly delayed tumor growth, but the combination therapy showed an antagonistic effect. Similarly, tumor growth was significantly suppressed by β-lapachone alone, and additive effects were noted when combined with gemcitabine, but the therapeutic efficacy was reduced when anti-EMMPRIN antibody was added. Conclusions: Anti-EMMPRIN antibody with chemotherapy in hypovascular tumors results in antagonistic effects. © 2013 World Molecular Imaging Society.