Recycling and the operation of reverse distribution channels are appropriately receiving increased attention as rampant solid waste pollution, energy shortages, and serious materials scarcity are recognized as realities of our modern age. If organizations are to survive in this modern era, they will necessarily have to plan, organize, and manage specifically for environmental, energy, and materials contingencies. Business practice and philosophy are changing as it becomes increasingly apparent that we do indeed live in a world of finite resources and limited energy supplies. Central to this changing philosophy is the implementation of reverse channels of distribution. © 1978, The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.