Objective To assess whether the combination of early inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) therapy and vitamin A supplementation lowers the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature newborns with respiratory failure. Study design A total of 793 mechanically ventilated infants (birth weight 500-1250 g) were randomized (after stratification by birth weight) to receive placebo or iNO (5 ppm) for 21 days or until extubation (500-749, 750-999, or 1000-1250 g). A total of 398 newborns received iNO, and of these, 118 (30%) received vitamin A according to their enrollment center. We compared patients who received iNO + vitamin A with those who received iNO alone. The primary outcome was a composite of death or BPD at 36 weeks postconceptual age. Results BPD was reduced in infants who received iNO + vitamin A for the 750-999 g birth weight group compared with iNO alone (P =.01). This group also showed a reduction in the combined outcome of BPD + death compared with iNO alone (P =.01). The use of vitamin A did not change the risk for BPD in the placebo group. Overall, the use of vitamin A was low (229 of 793 patients, or 29%). Combined therapy improved Bayley Scales of Infant Development II Mental and Psychomotor Developmental Index scores at 1 year compared with infants treated solely with iNO for the 500-749 g birth weight group. Conclusions In this retrospective analysis of the nonrandomized use of vitamin A, combined iNO + vitamin A therapy in preterm infants with birth weight 750-999 g reduced the incidence of BPD and BPD + death and improved neurocognitive outcomes at 1 year in the 500-749 g birth weight group. © 2014 Mosby Inc. All rights reserved.