The ovine-caprine lentiviruses share nucleotide homology and serological properties in their gag-pol genes and gene products but constitute two distinct biological groups represented by ovine visna virus of Icelandic origin and by caprine arthritis-encephalitis and ovine progressive pneumonia viruses of U.S. origin. Two members of each group, visna 1514 and its antigenic variant LV1-1 in the first group and CAEV/CO and S93, a field isolate virus from a local arthritic sheep, in the second group, were examined in the present study in competitive-binding studies in fibroblast and macrophage cell cultures. The cultures were preinoculated with each of the four viruses and then reinoculated with either 1514 virus or CAEV/CO, labeled with [35S]methionine. Both 1514 and CAEV/CO caused homologous interference. LV1-1 and S93 viruses shared the interference patterns of 1514 and CAEV/CO, respectively. 1514 and LV1-1 did not interfere with binding of CAEV/CO. Similarly, CAEV/CO and S93 did not interfere with binding of 1514. Remarkably, certain combinations, such as S93 plus 1514, resulted in enhanced binding of the second virus. Other experiments showed that the enhancement in binding extended to enhancement in replication of the second virus. These latter data suggested that individual cells supported replication of both viruses. Further testing of this phenomenon showed that goats could be doubly infected with two noninterfering viruses, 1514 and CAEV/CO. The ability of noninterfering related lentiviruses to infect the same cell and also the same host animal may be important in the natural history of these viruses in providing ideal conditions for the development of new recombinant viruses.