We investigated risk factors associated with HIV infection in women who accepted voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) intrapartum. A survey questionnaire containing information on sociodemographic characteristics was administered to parturients at the Central Hospital Kigali after informed consent had been obtained. Participants were then offered VCT for HIV, and those who accepted were informed of their results. Of the 427 eligible participants, 317 accepted VCT (74.2%). The results of 312 (98.4%) of these women were obtained and 50 tested positive for HIV, yielding an HIV seroprevalence of 16.0% intrapartum. Women who had been pregnant three or more times were three times as likely to test positive for HIV in comparison to those of lower parity (OR = 2.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-8.0). This finding contradicts earlier studies performed antenatally among women of childbearing age and pregnant women in general. This may be attributable to some inadequacy in the existing health-care infrastructure to effectively detect HIV in multiparous women antenatally, or may represent a signal that a change in the nature of the epidemic in Rwanda is occurring.