Pesticide poisoning is a major public health concern in developing countries. The authors conducted a population survey among farmers in 3 parishes of northwestern Jamaica to determine the occurrence of acute pesticide poisoning and to identify factors associated with pesticide poisoning. Approximately 16% of 359 farmers who participated in the study reported 1 or more incidents of acute pesticide poisoning within the last 2 years. Only 25% of the farmers reported ever receiving training in pesticide handling or safety. The majority (68%) of farmers who reported pesticide poisoning never sought medical attention for poisoning. The factors found to be associated with pesticide poisoning in this study indicate that implementation of specific intervention strategies and education of farmers is needed in order to improve safe handling, use, and disposal of pesticides and reduce incidents of acute pesticide poisoning. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.