Background-Previous studies of the relationship between coffee consumption and incidence of heart failure (HF) have not been consistent, with both potential benefit and potential harm reported. We therefore examined the association between coffee consumption and HF hospitalization or mortality in women. Methods and Results-We conducted a prospective, observational study of 34 551 participants of the Swedish Mammography Cohort who were 48 to 83 years old and did not have HF, diabetes, or myocardial infarction at baseline. Diet was measured using food-frequency questionnaires. Cox models were used to calculate hazard ratios of HF hospitalization or death from HF as the primary cause, as determined through the Swedish inpatient and cause-of-death registers between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2006. Over 9 years of follow-up, 602 HF events occurred. Women who consumed ≥5 cups of coffee per day did not have higher rates of HF events than those who consumed <5 cups per day (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.72 to 1.20). Compared with women who consumed ≤1 cup of coffee per day, hazard ratios were 1.01, 0.82, 0.94, and 0.87 for women who consumed 2, 3, 4, and ≥5 cups per day, respectively (P for trend-0.23). Further adjustment for self-reported hypertension did not change the results. Conclusions-In this population of middle-aged and older women, we did not find an association between coffee consumption and incidence of HF events. (Circ Heart Fail. 2011;4:414-418.). © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.