© 2015 Elsevier Inc. Epigenetic processes, defined as heritable changes in gene expression that occur without changes to the DNA sequence, have emerged as a promising area of cardiovascular disease research. Epigenetic information transcends that of the genotype alone and provides for an integrated etiologic picture of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis because of the interaction of the epigenome with the environment. Epigenetic biomarkers, which include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and RNA-based mechanisms, are both modifiable and cell-type specific, which makes them not only responsive to the environment, but also an attractive target for drug development. However, the enthusiasm surrounding possible applications of cardiovascular epigenetics currently outpaces available evidence. In this review, the authors synthesize the evidence linking epigenetic changes with cardiovascular disease, emphasizing the gap between the translational potential and the clinical reality of cardiovascular epigenetics.