Objectives The purpose of this study was to (1) determine the prevalence of weight misperception among overweight and obese men with total body fat levels-≥-25%, and (2) examine associations of weight misperception with anthropometric and body composition measures. Methods Data came from 4,200 overweight or obese men from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Weight misperception was operationalized as having a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived total body fat percentage ≥25% and classifying oneself as either "underweight" or "about right weight." Logistic regression was used to determine physical characteristics associated with weight misperception. Results Weight misperception was highest among Mexican American (35.9%) followed by Black (30.8%) and White men (22.9%). Physical characteristics (OR, 95% CI) associated with weight misperception were decreased arm fat (0.95, 0.91-0.98), being overweight (9.02, 5.34-15.24), and having a waist circumference-≤-94 cm (2.31, 1.72-3.09). Conclusions Findings suggest that future research should include a measure of adiposity in the operationalization of weight misperception among male populations.