Experimental data indicate that the cardiorenal effects of aldosterone excess are dependent on concomitant high dietary salt intake. Such an interaction of endogenous aldosterone and dietary salt has not been observed previously in humans. We assessed the hypothesis that excess aldosterone and high dietary sodium intake combine to worsen proteinuria in patients with resistant hypertension. Consecutive subjects with resistant hypertension (n=84) were prospectively evaluated by measurement of 24-hour urinary aldosterone (Ualdo), sodium, and protein (Uprot) excretion. Subjects were analyzed according to aldosterone status (high: Ualdo ≥12 μg/24 hours; or normal: <12 μg/24 hours) and dietary salt intake based on tertiles of urinary sodium. The mean clinic blood pressure for all of the subjects was 161.4±22.4/89. 8±13.5 mm Hg on an average of 4.3 medications. There was no blood pressure difference between study groups. Uprot was significantly higher in the 38 subjects with high Ualdo compared with the 46 subjects with normal Ualdo (143.0±83.8 versus 95.9±81.7 mg/24 hours; P=0.01). Among subjects with high Ualdo, Uprot increased progressively across urinary sodium groups (P<0.05). In contrast, there was no difference in Uprot across sodium tertiles among subjects with normal Ualdo. A positive correlation between Uprot and urinary sodium (r=0.47; P=0.003) was observed in subjects with high Ualdo but not in subjects with normal Ualdo (r=0.18; P value not significant). These results suggest that aldosterone excess and high dietary salt combine to increase urinary protein excretion. © 2008 American Heart Association, Inc.