Exposure of jeepney drivers in Manila, Philippines, to selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

Academic Article


  • The objective of this study was to assess the occupational, exposure of jeepney drivers to selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Manila, Philippines. Personal sampling was conducted on 15 jeepney drivers. Area sampling was conducted to determine the background VOC concentration in Manila as compared to that in a rural area. Both personal and area samples were collected for 5 working days. Samples were obtained using diffusive samplers and were analyzed for 6 VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene) using gas chromatography. Results showed that the average personal exposure concentration of jeepney drivers was 55.6 (± 9.3), 196.6 (± 75.0), 17.9 (± 9.0), 72.5 (± 21.1) and 88.5 (± 26.5) μ/m3 for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene, respectively. The urban ambient concentration was 11.8 (± 2.2), 83.7 (± 40.5) and 38.0 (± 12.1) μg/m3 for benzene, toluene and o-xylene, respectively. The rural ambient concentration was 14.0 (± 6.0) and 24.7 (± 11.9) μg/m3 for toluene and o-xylene, respectively. The personal samples had significantly higher (p<0.05) concentrations for all selected VOCs than the urban area samples. Among the area samples, the urban concentrations of benzene and toluene were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the rural concentrations. The personal exposures for all the target VOCs were not significantly different among the jeepney drivers.
  • Authors

    Published In

  • Industrial Health  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Balanay JAG; Lungu CT
  • Start Page

  • 33
  • End Page

  • 42
  • Volume

  • 47
  • Issue

  • 1