The aim of this study was to gather comprehensive data from three hospitals in Istanbul, Turkey, in order to gain in-depth understanding of the quality of antenatal care in this setting. The Bruce-Jain framework for quality of care was adapted for use in evaluating antenatal care. Methods included examination of hospital records, in-depth interviews, exit questionnaires, and structured observations. The study revealed deficiencies in the quality of antenatal care being delivered at the study hospitals in all six elements of the quality-of-care framework. The technical content of visits varied greatly among the hospitals, and an overuse of technology was accompanied by neglect of some essential components of antenatal care. Although at the private hospital some problems with the technical content of care were identified, client satisfaction was higher there, where the care included good interpersonal relations, information provision, and continuity. Providers at all three hospitals felt constrained by heavy patient loads and a lack of resources. Multifaceted approaches are needed to improve the quality of antenatal care in this setting. © 2006 The Population Council, Inc.