Remodeling of the epithelial basement membrane zone (BMZ) involves increased deposition of collagen, resulting in thickening of the BMZ. The current study focuses on fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in the tracheal BMZ in house dust mite allergen (HDMA)-sensitized infant rhesus monkeys. challenged with HDMA at a time when the BMZ is undergoing active postnatal development. To detect structural changes in the BMZ, we measured collagens I, III, and V. To detect changes in the function of the BMZ, we measured immunoreactivity of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, perlecan, and FGF-2. We found significant thickening of the tracheal BMZ (p < 0.05) with each of these parameters. We also found that all HDMA tracheal samples expressed thin focal areas of the BMZ associated with leukocyte trafficking. These areas were depleted of perlecan and FGF-2; however, increased FGF-2 immunoreactivity was present in the adjacent basal cells. We conclude that basal cells and FGF-2 are involved with significant remodeling of the BMZ in the developing trachea of infant rhesus monkeys exposed to HDMA.