Background: Most of the studies associated with condom carrying and use have been conducted with adults. Because minority teenage females are particularly at risk for STD/HIV infection, further investigations specifically focusing on this population are warranted. Goal: To determine whether observed condom carrying among adolescent females was associated with multiple measures of self-reported condom use, self-reported history of sexually transmitted diseases, and prevalence of biologically confirmed sexually transmitted diseases. Methods: For this study, 522 sexually active African American adolescent females were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in Birmingham, Alabama. Measures of self-reported condom use, STD history, and condom carrying were collected. Adolescents were also tested for three prevalent sexually transmitted diseases. Results: At the time of the assessment, 8% of the adolescents were observed to have a condom with them. Condom carrying was not found to be significantly associated with condom use and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusion: Condom carrying may not be an important outcome of sexually transmitted disease/HIV prevention programs designed to reduce HIV/sexually transmitted disease risk among adolescent females.