The Arab-American population grew by 42% in the 1980s, reaching over one million in 1990 (although less conservative estimates have put it at around 2.5 million). Arab-Americans are increasingly diverse in national origin and more likely to be Muslim. They have higher than average educational levels and incomes, though poverty remains high among the foreign-born. This article examines changes in the demographic and socioeconomic profile of Arab-Americans, their implications, and the assimilation trajectory for this group. Although still small in size relative to many other US ethnic groups, the Arab-American population may gain more public recognition if current demographic trends hold and a positive assimilation path is maintained.