The regulation of lipolysis, free fatty acid appearance into plasma (FFA R(a)), and FFA reesterification and oxidation were examined in seven healthy humans infused intravenously with insulin at rates of 4, 8, 25, and 400 mU · m-2 · min-1. Glycerol and FFA R(a) were determined by isotope dilution methods, and FFA oxidation was calculated by indirect calorimetry or by measurement of expired 14CO2 from infused [1-14C]palmitate. These measurements were used to calculate total FFA reesterification, primary FFA reesterification occurring within the adipocyte, and secondary reesterification of circulating FFA molecules. Lipolysis, FFA R(a), and secondary FFA reesterification were exquisitely insulin sensitive [the insulin concentrations that produced half-maximal suppression (EC50), 106 ± 26, 91 ± 20 vs. 80 ± 16 pM, P = not significant] in contrast to insulin suppression of FFA oxidation (EC50, 324 ± 60, all P < 0.01). The absolute rate of primary FFA reesterification was not affected by the increase in insulin concentration, but the proportion of FFA molecules undergoing primary reesterification doubled over the physiological portion of the insulin dose- response curve (from 0.23 ± 0.06 to 0.44 ± 0.07, P < 0.05). This served to magnify insulin suppression of FFA R(a) twofold. In conclusion, insulin regulates FFA R(a) by inhibition of lipolysis while maintaining a constant rate of primary FFA reesterification.