Weight cycling, defined as repeated episodes of weight loss followed by weight regain, has been suggested to make rats more energy efficient and produce a state of energy balance favoring accumulation of excess body fat. In addition, weight cycling may favor accumulation of fat in central vs. peripheral adipose depots. In the present study, we gave two groups of female Wistar rats ad libitum access to an obesity-producing high-fat diet (60% of calories from fat). Both groups had previously eaten a low-fat stock diet, but one group had been subjected to three bouts of weight cycling. Rats that were previously weight cycled gained less body weight and body fat when given the high-fat diet than did controls. The lower rate of weight gain was due to a lesser increase in food intake, since daily energy expenditure was significantly lower in previously cycled rats than in controls. In summary, weight cycling does not appear to predispose rats to becoming obese on a high-calorie diet and apparently produces some effect on food intake that reduces, at least in the short run, weight gain on the high-calorie diet.