Mature (450 g) rats were subjected to food restriction (60 percent of usual intake) with or without weight cycling (produced by cycles of 3 days of fasting followed by 7 days of refeeding). Weight cycling did not affect body weight, body composition, or food efficiency during the restriction period. However, the group subjected to weight cycling (WC) had an elevated level of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in the epididymal adipose tissue as compared to the group receiving a constant amount of food each day (CO). After 40 days (four 10-day cycles) of food restriction, rats were allowed ad libitum access to a stock diet for 18 days. WC rats restored carcass energy more rapidly, with a greater food efficiency than CO rats. Carcass energy was not totally restored at the end of the 18-day period, but WC rats had regained significantly more total carcass energy and total fat-free dry weight (FFDW) than CO rats. Food intake during refeeding did not differ significantly between WC and CO rats. These results suggest that weight cycling in a food-restricted program has the potential to increase food efficiency during a subsequent refeeding period.