Cellular and molecular events in osseointegration at the dental implant surface remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) participate in this process, and that osterix (Osx) promotes implant osseointegration. To prove this hypothesis, we tracked double-labeled BMSCs in implantation sites created in nude mice transplanted with these cells. We also inserted implants into the femurs of our established transgenic mice after local administration of viruses encoding Osx, to determine the osteogenic effects of Osx. Immunohistochemical results demonstrated that BMSCs can recruit from peripheral circulation and participate in wound healing and osseointegration after implantation. Microcomputed tomography (microCT) analysis revealed an increased bone density at the bone-to-implant interface in the Osx group, and histomorphometric analysis indicated an elevated level of bone-to-implant contact in the Osx group. We concluded that exogenous BMSCs participate in the osseointegration after implantation, and that Osx overexpression accelerates osseointegration.