Aerobic metabolism requires oxygen and carbon sources brought to tissues via the vasculature. Metabolically active tissues such as skeletal muscle can regulate blood vessel density to match metabolic needs; however, the molecular cues that coordinate these processes remain poorly understood. Here we report that the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 β (PGC-1 β), a potent regulator of mitochondrial biology, induces angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. PGC-1 β induces the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cell culture and in vivo. The induction of VEGF by PGC-1 β requires coactivation of the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor-α (ERRα) and is independent of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway. In coculture experiments, overexpression of PGC-1 β in skeletal myotubes increases the migration of adjacent endothelial cells, and this depends on VEGF signaling. Transgenic expression of PGC-1 β in skeletal myocytes dramatically increases muscular vessel density. Taken together, these data indicate that PGC-1 β is a potent regulator of angiogenesis, thus providing a novel link between the regulations of oxidative metabolism and vascular density. © 2011 the American Physiological Society.