qPCR and pp65 antigenemia assays are used to monitor CMV infection in renal transplant recipients, but correlation of assays in a pediatric population has not been evaluated. Paired CMV real-time qPCR and pp65 antigenemia tests from 882 blood samples collected from 115 pediatric renal transplant recipients were analyzed in this retrospective cohort study for the strength of association and clinical correlates. The assays correlated well in detecting infection (κ = 0.61). Higher qPCR values were demonstrated with increasing levels of antigenemia (p < 0.01). Discordant test results were associated with antiviral treatment (OR 4.33, p < 0.01) and low-level viremia, with odds of concordance increasing at higher qPCR values (OR 3.67, p < 0.01), and no discordance occurring above 8500 genomic equivalents/mL. Among discordant samples, neither test preceded the other in detecting initial infection or in returning to negative while on treatment. Only two cases of disease occurred during the two-yr study period. With strong agreement in the detection of CMV infection, either qPCR or pp65 antigenemia assays can be used effectively for monitoring pediatric renal transplant patients for both detection and resolution of infection. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.