This study analyzed candidate hydrogen-fueled vehicles for near and long-term use associated with their efficiency, performance, and emissions. Various types of hydrogen-fueled vehicles were assessed using Argonne National Laboratory's Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit vehicle simulation model. These include hythane- and hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines (ICEs), hydrogen-fueled hybrid electric propulsion, and direct hydrogen fuel cells. Vehicle sizes and configurations, consistent with the available component models/data, were simulated to compare efficiency and emissions with baseline conventional vehicles. The simulations provided salient information on the vehicle characteristics, performance, and efficiency, as functions of operating conditions on standard driving cycles. It was found that substantial gains in fuel economy can be achieved through hybridization both for conventional and fuel cell vehicles. When hybridized, hydrogen ICE configurations achieve similar fuel economy to gasoline counterparts. The results also confirm that ICE hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) achieve higher fuel economy than fuel cell configurations and comparable results with fuel cell HEV. Comparison of efficiency results for various driving cycles further indicates that cycles with low power demand are most suited for hybrid operations. © 2006 ASCE.