Calcium intake is reported to enhance weight loss with a preferential loss in trunk fat. Discrepant findings exist as to the effects of calcium intake on longitudinal changes in total fat mass and central fat deposition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine associations between dietary calcium intake and 1-year change in body composition and fat distribution, specifically intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT). A total of 119 healthy, premenopausal women were evaluated at baseline and 1 year later. Average dietary calcium was determined via 4-day food records. Total fat was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) and IAAT by computed tomography. Over the study period, participants' reported daily calcium and energy intakes were 610.0 ±229.9mg and 1,623.1 ±348.5kcal, respectively. The mean change in weight, total fat, IAAT, and SAAT was 4.9 ±4.4kg, 5.3± 4.0kg, 7.7 19.5cm 2, and 49.3 81.1cm 2, respectively. Average calcium intake was significantly, inversely associated with 1-year change in IAAT (standardized Β: 0.23, P< 0.05) after adjusting for confounding variables. For every 100mg/day of calcium consumed, gain in IAAT was reduced by 2.7cm 2. No significant associations were observed for average calcium intake with change in weight, total fat, or SAAT. In conclusion, dietary calcium intake was significantly associated with less gain in IAAT over 1 year in premenopausal women. Further investigation is needed to verify these findings and determine the calcium intake needed to exert beneficial effects on fat distribution. © 2010 The Obesity Society.