We tested the hypothesis that older men (n= 9, 69 ± 2 years) would experience greater resistance-training-induced myofiber hypertrophy than older women (n = 5, 66 ± 1 years) following knee extensor training 3 days per week at 65-80% of one-repetition maximum for 26 weeks. Vastus lateralis biopsies were analyzed for myofiber areas, myosin heavy chain isoform distribution, and levels of mRNA for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGFR1, and myogenin. Gender × Training interactions (p < .05) indicate greater myofiber hypertrophy for all three primary fiber types (I, IIa, IIx) and enhanced one-repetition maximum strength gain in men compared with women (p < .05). Covarying for serum IGF-1, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, or each muscle mRNA did not negate these interactions. In both genders, type IIx myofiber area distribution and myosin heavy chain type IIx distribution decreased with a concomitant increase in type IIa myofiber area distribution (p < .05). In summary, gender differences in load-induced myofiber hypertrophy among older adults cannot be explained by levels of circulating IGF-1 or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, or by expression of the myogenic transcripts examined.