Anthropometric analysis of the face

Academic Article


  • Background: Facial anthropometric analysis is essential for planning cosmetic and reconstructive facial surgery, but has not been available in detail for modern Greeks. In this study, multiple measurements of the face were performed on young Greek males and females to provide a complete facial anthropometric profile of this population and to compare its facial morphology with that of North American Caucasians. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one direct facial anthropometric measurements were obtained from 152 Greek students. Moreover, the prevalence of the various face types was determined. The resulting data were compared with those published regarding North American Caucasians. Results: A complete set of average anthropometric data was obtained for each sex. Greek males, when compared to Greek females, were found to have statistically significantly longer foreheads as well as greater values in morphologic face height, mandible width, maxillary surface arc distance, and mandibular surface arc distance. In both sexes, the most common face types were mesoprosop, leptoprosop, and hyperleptoprosop. Greek males had significantly wider faces and mandibles than the North American Caucasian males, whereas Greek females had only significantly wider mandibles than their North American counterparts. Conclusions: Differences of statistical significance were noted in the head and face regions among sexes as well as among Greek and North American Caucasians. With the establishment of facial norms for Greek adults, this study contributes to the preoperative planning as well as postoperative evaluation of Greek patients that are, respectively, scheduled for or are to be subjected to facial reconstructive and aesthetic surgery.
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    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Zacharopoulos GV; Manios A; Kau CH; Velagrakis G; Tzanakakis GN; De Bree E
  • Start Page

  • e71
  • End Page

  • e75
  • Volume

  • 27
  • Issue

  • 1