Although liver resection has been shown to prolong survival in selected patients with metastases from colorectal cancer, the benefit for other metastatic tumors is unproved. To determine whether hepatic resection has a role in the management of metastatic leiomyosarcoma, medical records from 11 consecutive patients who underwent resection of isolated metastases from leiomyosarcoma between 1984 and 1995 were reviewed. All liver resections were for leiomyosarcomas originating in the viscera (n = 6) or retroperitoneum (n = 5). The average disease-free interval was 16 months. Five of 11 primary tumors were classified as low grade, whereas six were high grade. Hepatic resections included lobectomy or extended lobectomy (n = 4), segmentectomy and/or wedge resection (n = 5), and complex resection (n = 2). There were no operative deaths. Median survival of all patients after liver resection was 39 months. Patients who underwent complete resection of hepatic metastases (n = 6) had a significantly longer survival than those who had incomplete resections (n = 5) (P = 0.03, log-rank test). Furthermore, five of six patients who underwent complete resection are alive after hepatectomy with a median follow-up of 53 months. Therefore, in selected patients with isolated liver metastases from visceral and retroperitoneal leiomyosarcomas, complete resection of hepatic metastases results in prolonged survival.