© Myron D. Fottler, Donna Malvey and Donna J. Slovensky 2015. All rights reserved. Medical errors in the United States engender national economic and policy concerns as well as affecting individuals and organizations. The financial and human costs associated with medical errors in the US have recently been estimated at $17.1 billion (Van Den Bos et al., 2011) and between 210 000 and 400 000 patient deaths (James, 2013) each year. Medical error and its flip side, patient safety, have been of concern among healthcare providers for many years, but did not emerge as national policy issues until the late twentieth century. Occasional articles appeared in the research literature and trade press, but they rarely engendered sufficient attention or controversy to get the populace involved in advocating for system-wide improvements.