The enzyme phosphoglucomutase functions at a key point in carbohydrate metabolism. In this paper, we show that the synthesis of the major isoform of yeast phosphoglucomutase, encoded by the GAL5 (PGM2) gene, is regulated in a manner that is distinct from that previously described for other enzymes involved in galactose metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Accumulation of this isoform increased four- to sixfold when the culture experienced either glucose depletion or heat shock. However, heat shock induction did not occur unless the cells were under glucose repression. This nonadditive increase in expression suggests that the regulatory mechanisms controlling the heat shock induction and glucose repression of the GAL5 gene are functionally related. We previously demonstrated that phosphoglucomutase is modified by a posttranslational Glc-phosphorylation reaction. We now show that this posttranslational modification, like phosphoglucomutase expression itself, is also regulated by galactose induction and glucose repression. Finally, no evidence was found to indicate that the Glc-phosphorylation of phosphoglucomutase alters its enzymatic activity under the conditions examined.