Growth factors are mediators of both normal homeostasis and pathophysiology through their effects on various cellular processes. Similarly, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has a role in maintaining physiologic equilibrium, by which it can either alleviate or exacerbate disease, depending on several considerations, including amount, timing, and location of expression, as well as the disease setting. Thus, the synthesis and activities of growth factors and HO-1 are intricately regulated. Interestingly, several growth factors induce HO-1, and, conversely, HO-1 can regulate the expression of some growth factors. This review focuses on the influence of growth factors and HO-1 and potential physiologic effects of the growth factor(s)-HO-1 interaction. © 2007 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.