Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β plays a central role in vascular homeostasis and in the pathology of vascular disease. There is a growing appreciation for the role of nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) as highly diffusible, bioactive signaling molecules in the vasculature. We hypothesized that both NO and CO increase endocytosis of TGF- receptor type 1 (TβR1) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) through activation of dynamin-2, shielding cells from the effects of circulating TGF- β. In this study, primary cultures of VSMCs from Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with NO-releasing molecule 3 (a NO chemical donor), CO-releasing molecule 2 (a CO chemical donor), or control. NO and CO stimulated dynamin-2 activation in VSMCs. NO and CO promoted time- and dose-dependent endocytosis of TβR1. By decreasing TβR1 surface expression through this dynamin- 2-dependent process, NO and CO diminished the effects of TGF-β on VSMCs. These findings help explain an important mechanism by which NO and CO signal in the vasculature by decreasing surface expression of TβR1 and the cellular response to TGF-β.