Changes in psychological state and self-reported diet during various phases of training in competitive bodybuilders

Academic Article


  • This study monitored psychological state, diet, and body composition of male and female bodybuilders (BB) as they prepared for a state championship. Psychological tests administered over 12 weeks reflected a trend for the BB to become more fatigued, depressed, tense, confused, and less vigorous across time. Three-day dietary profiles indicated that daily caloric intake decreased for both sexes. Percentage of calories from carbohydrate, fat, and protein were similar for both; carbohydrate consumption changed little, but percentage of fat decreased and protein increased as competition neared. Because the BB took supplements, the RDA was exceeded for the nine vitamins and minerals analyzed. Vitamin and mineral intake determined from food alone indicated that males were above 70% RDA for all vitamins and minerals except calcium and zinc 1 week prior to competition. Females were below 70% RDA throughout the study for folacin, vitamin E, calcium, potassium, and zinc. The results indicate that BB reduced percent fat to very low levels while consuming a low calorie, low fat, high protein diet, but such an intense regimen may adversely affect psychological state. © 1993 Journal of Applied Sport Science Research. All rights reserved.
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    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Newton LE; Hunter G; Bammon M; Roney R
  • Start Page

  • 147
  • End Page

  • 152
  • Volume

  • 7
  • Issue

  • 3