Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a series of 16 survey instruments measuring fitness and recreation accessibility, collectively referred to as AIMFREE (Accessibility Instruments Measuring Fitness and Recreation Environments). General domains of assessment included the built environment, equipment, programmes, policies, and training and behaviour. Methods: Fitness and recreation professionals (n = 35) assessed fitness centres/swimming pools (n = 35) in nine regions across the US. Rasch analysis was used to assess the psychometric properties of the instrument. Results: The AIMFREE evidenced adequate to good fit to the Rasch model and adequate to good internal consistency (r = 0.70-0.90). Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.70 (entrance areas) to 0.97 (swimming pools). Analysis of differential item functioning indicated that item calibrations generally did not differ significantly between urban and suburban environments. Conclusion: The AIMFREE instruments demonstrated adequate to good fit to the Rasch model with several of the subscales demonstrating well to excellent separation of facility accessibility. © 2004 Taylor & Francis Ltd.