Simultaneous monitoring of many functioning β-cells is essential for understanding β-cell dysfunction as an early event in the progression to diabetes. Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging has been shown to allow high resolution detection of stimulus-evoked physiological responses in the retina and other neural tissues. In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of using IOS imaging for functional examination of insulin secreting INS-1 cells, a popular model for investigating diabetes associated β-cell dysfunction. Our experiments indicate that IOS imaging permits simultaneous monitoring of glucose-stimulated physiological responses in multiple cells with high spatial (sub-cellular) and temporal (sub-second) resolution. Rapid IOS image sequences revealed transient optical responses that had time courses tightly correlated with the glucose stimulation. © 2010 Optical Society of America.