Functional measurement is important for retinal study and disease diagnosis. Transient intrinsic optical signal (IOS) response, tightly correlated with functional stimulation, has been previously detected in normal retinas. In this paper, comparative IOS imaging of wild-type (WT) and rod-degenerated mutant mouse retinas is reported. Both 2-month and 1-year-old mice were measured. In 2-month-old mutant mice, time course and peak value of the stimulus-evoked IOS were significantly delayed (relative to stimulus onset) and reduced, respectively, compared to age matched WT mice. In 1-year-old mutant mice, stimulus-evoked IOS was totally absent. However, enhanced spontaneous IOS responses, which might reflect inner neural remodeling in diseased retina, were observed in both 2-month and 1-year-old mutant retinas. Our experiments demonstrate the potential of using IOS imaging for noninvasive and high resolution identification of disease-associated retinal dysfunctions. Moreover, high spatiotemporal resolution IOS imaging may also lead to advanced understanding of disease-associated neural remodeling in the retina. © 2012 Optical Society of America.