Functional aerobic capacity among persons with stroke is severely compromised and may limit their full participation in community living. Even though aerobic conditioning can be potentially valuable to persons with stroke in reducing the risk of recurrent morbid events and improving overall quality of life, there is limited information on the specific dose of aerobic exercise (i.e., frequency, intensity, duration, and modality) that may achieve the most desirable health outcomes under the safest conditions in this population. Because of the many comorbidities associated with stroke (i.e., hypertension, heart disease, obesity, depression), specific recommendations for prescribing aerobic exercise must become more precise and be subsequently added to the treatment regimen for this large and diverse population. Future research must address optimal aerobic training programs necessary for reductions in cardiovascular risk factors and gains in functional status in stroke patients. © 2005 Thomas Land Publishers, Inc.