Rimmer JH, Rauworth AE, Wang EC, Nicola TL, Hill B. A preliminary study to examine the effects of aerobic and therapeutic (nonaerobic) exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness and coronary risk reduction in stroke survivors. Objectives: To compare the effects of 3 different exercise training regimens on cardiorespiratory fitness and coronary risk factor reduction in subjects with unilateral stroke. Design: A cluster assignment by residential location repeated-measures design. Setting: University-based medical center. Participants: Fifty-five subjects with unilateral ischemic stroke were assigned to the following groups: intensity (n=18), duration (n=19), and therapeutic exercise (n=18). Intervention: A 14-week intervention with subjects randomized to 1 of 3 interventions: (1) moderate intensity, shorter duration (MISD) exercise (gradually increasing exercise intensity while keeping exercise duration constant at 30 min), (2) low-intensity, longer duration (LILD) exercise (gradually increasing duration to 60 min while keeping exercise intensity constant), or (3) conventional therapeutic exercise (TE) consisting mainly of strength, balance, and range of motion activities. All groups exercised 3 days per week. Main Outcome Measures: Peak oxygen consumption (Vo2peak), submaximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2), lipid panel, and resting blood pressure. Results: The MISD group attained more favorable effects on systolic (P<.04) and diastolic blood pressure (P<.002) and total cholesterol (TC) (P<.036) compared with LILD and TE groups. Both MISD (P<.029) and LILD (P<.045) showed significant reductions in triglycerides compared with TE (P<.029). There was no significant change in Vo2peak and submaximal V̇o2 in any of the groups. Conclusions: Overall, both MISD and LILD conditions achieved greater clinical and significant gains in coronary risk reduction compared with TE. © 2009 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine.