Beating the system to maximize efficiency will yield no positive return on a bar code investment, in terms of reducing medical errors. The critical success factor in the bar coding scenario is that of operational effectiveness. By shifting the nurses' focus from that of efficiency to that of operational effectiveness, the use of bar coding medication technology will reduce medication errors. CIOs looking for a quick fix to reducing medication errors through the use of bar coding technology need to understand that the technology alone won't solve their problem. Rather, it's the balance between operational efficiency and effectiveness among multiple departments working together, both vertically and horizontally, which will yield the greatest ROI.