(1) Background: The disease-modifying mechanisms of high-dose intravenous vitamin C (HDIVC) in sepsis induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is unclear. (2) Methods: We performed a post hoc study of plasma biomarkers from subjects enrolled in the randomized placebo-controlled trial CITRIS-ALI. We explored the effects of HDIVC on cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and syndecan-1, surrogates for neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx, respectively. (3) Results: In 167 study subjects, baseline cfDNA levels in HDIVC (84 subjects) and placebo (83 subjects) were 2.18 ng/µL (SD 4.20 ng/µL) and 2.65 ng/µL (SD 3.87 ng/µL), respectively, p = 0.45. At 48-h, the cfDNA reduction was 1.02 ng/µL greater in HDIVC than placebo, p = 0.05. Mean baseline syndecan-1 levels in HDIVC and placebo were 9.49 ng/mL (SD 5.57 ng/mL) and 10.83 ng/mL (SD 5.95 ng/mL), respectively, p = 0.14. At 48 h, placebo subjects exhibited a 1.53 ng/mL (95% CI, 0.96 to 2.11) increase in syndecan-1 vs. 0.75 ng/mL (95% CI, 0.21 to 1.29, p = 0.05), in HDIVC subjects. (4) Conclusions: HDIVC infusion attenuated cell-free DNA and syndecan-1, biomarkers associated with sepsis-induced ARDS. Improvement of these biomarkers suggests amelioration of NETosis and shedding of the vascular endothelial glycocalyx, respectively.