Importance: Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare histiocytic neoplasm with recent studies showing alterations in the MAPK pathway, most commonly in the KRAS and MEK genes in about 40% of patients. Reports on the use of MEK-inhibitor therapy in RDD have been limited to small case studies. There are no approved treatments for this neoplasm, and therefore patients with RDD need efficacious treatments. Objective: To study the outcomes after treatment with cobimetinib based on MAPK pathway alterations in patients with RDD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study conducted at 2 tertiary care centers included patients with RDD who underwent treatment with cobimetinib between January 1, 2013, and December 1, 2021. Cobimetinib was administered at a dosage of 20 to 60 mg orally once daily as a single agent for 21 days in a 28-day cycle. Pathology was centrally reviewed. Response assessment was centrally conducted and was based on the established positron emission radiography response criteria used for clinical trials of targeted therapies in histiocytosis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes were overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), adverse events (AEs) of cobimetinib in the entire cohort, and ORRs and PFS based on MAPK pathway alterations in patients with RDD. Results: A total of 16 patients (median [range] age at cobimetinib initiation, 57 [31-74] years; 11 [69%] women) were included in the study. The median follow-up duration was 19.0 months (95% CI, 8.4-27.8 months). The ORR was 63% (n = 10), including 5 complete responses and 5 partial responses. Somatic alterations in the KRAS or MEK genes were detected in 8 (50%) patients. Patients with KRAS or MEK alterations had significantly higher ORR (88% vs 38%; P =.03), deeper responses (complete responses among responders: 71% vs 0%; P =.002), and better PFS (at 1 year, 100% vs 29% were free from progression or death, respectively; P <.001) compared with those without such alterations. Grade 2 or higher AEs occurred in 12 (75%) patients, and 9 (56%) required dose reduction or temporary/permanent treatment discontinuation due to AEs. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, treatment with cobimetinib was associated with positive outcomes in KRAS- or MEK-variant RDD. However, AEs requiring dose modifications were common..