Although the functions of chemokines in the regulation of immune processes have been studied in some detail, the role of these biomolecules in cancer is not fully understood. Chemokines mediate migration of immune cells and other functions related to immunity. They are also involved in oncogenesis and in tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis through mechanisms similar to their roles in immune functions. Various chemokines also promote cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis of stressed cells. Consequently, chemokines and their receptors present potential therapeutic targets for anticancer drugs. The chemokine CXCL8, also known as interleukin-8 (IL8), is a proinflammatory molecule that has functions within the tumor microenvironment. Due to its potent angiogenic effects and the activity of the chemokine and its receptors in the promotion of invasion and metastasis, CXCL8 and its receptors are now considered as attractive targets for cancer therapy. This review relates the current understanding of the regulation, signaling, and functions of CXCL8 that contribute to tumor growth and metastasis, and of its role in drug response.