Surface topography plays a critical role in the interaction of dental implants with adjacent tissues. It has been hypothesized that an increase in surface roughness will result in an increase in calcium and phosphorus deposition after immersion in a simulated physiological solution and will increase protein production and calcium uptake by osteoblast-like cells. With the use of a profilometer, titanium sa m pies ground with 600 grit silicon carbide paper were observed to have an average roughness (Ra) value of 0.28 ± 0.03 μm, whereas titanium samples polished with 0.3 μm Al2O3 exhibited a Ra value of 0.11 ± 0.01 μm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses indicated the presence of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and chlorine on both surface conditions after immersion in a protein-free physiologic solution. No significant difference in calcium and phosphorus concentrations were observed between the 600 grit or Al2O3 polished titanium samples after immersion in solution. The Ca/P ratio for both 600 grit and Al2O3 polished titanium was in the range of 0.8 to 1.1 after 12 days in solution. The percent protein retained by the rat bone marrow cell layer on both the Al2O3 polished and 600 grit titanium surfaces increased dramatically during the initial 3 days of the study. The 45Ca assays revealed no significant difference in cellular calcification on Al2O3 polished and 600 grit titanium surfaces. For both the Al2O3 polished and 600 grit surfaces, a sharp increase in 45Ca incorporation was observed after 9 days incubation. (Implant Dent 1996;5:83-88). © 1996 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.