In this review, we argue that it would be profitable if the neoclassical economic theories that have dominated recent US market level health care strategy research could be complemented by greater use of sociological frameworks. Sociological theory can address three central questions that neoclassical economic theories have tended to slight: (1) how decision-makers' preferences are determined; (2) who the decision-makers are; and (3) how decision-makers' plans are translated into organizational action. We suggest five sociological frameworks that would enable researchers to address these issues better relative to market level strategy in health care. The frameworks are (1) institutional theory, (2) organizational ecology, (3) social movements, (4) social networks, and (5) internal organizational change. A recent global trend toward privatization of health care provision makes US market level strategy research increasingly applicable to non-US readers.