Advanced prostate cancer (aPC) in Black men was reported to present with aggressive features and to be associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we compared the cell-free DNA (cfDNA) genomic landscape of aPC in Black vs White men. Patients (pts) with aPC from 6 academic institutions and available cfDNA comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) were included. Association between mutated genes and race was evaluated using Barnard's test and a Probabilistic Graphical Model (PGM) machine learning approach. Analysis included 743 aPC pts (217 Black, 526 White) with available cfDNA CGP. The frequency of alterations in the androgen receptor gene was significantly higher in Black vs White men (55.3% vs 35% respectively, P < .001). Additionally, alterations in EGFR, MYC, FGFR1, and CTNNB1 were present at higher frequencies in Black men. PGM analysis and Barnard's test were concordant. Findings from the largest cohort of Black men with aPC undergoing cfDNA CGP may guide further drug development in these men.