Mu DNA replication has been carried out in vitro on cellophane discs in the presence of dBUTP. If the DNA is sheared to 80 kb pieces, the Mu replicas band anomalously in CsCI gradients between hybrid and light DNA density positions. The intermediate density DNA comprises semiconservatively replicated Mu sequences, flanked by unreplicated light DNA. This and previous data are consistent with replication occurring within Mu boundaries. Both the synthesis of Mu sequences and the intermediate density DNA are abolished by protein synthesis inhibition in vivo just prior to lysis on cellophane discs. These observations indicate that at least some steps in bona fide Mu transposition-replication are being observed in vitro. © 1983.