Risk Factors for Incident Hypertension Within 1 Year of Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy Among People with HIV

Academic Article


  • Hypertension (HTN) is a common comorbidity among people with HIV and associated with an increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. The relationship of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation to incident HTN remains a clinical question. We determined HTN incidence at 48 weeks of follow-up among ART-naive participants without HTN and not taking antihypertensive medications at ART initiation through randomized clinical trials through the AIDS Clinical Trial Group between 1999 and 2011. We assessed the association of baseline characteristics, including randomized ART agents with HTN incidence at 48 weeks using Poisson regression models. Incident HTN was defined as blood pressure ‡130/80 mmHg, or use of antihypertensive medication. Among 2,614 participants, mean age was 37 – 10 years, 79% male sex, and 36% African American race. After 48 weeks, 839 participants (32%) developed HTN. Receiving a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) was associated with an increased relative risk (RR) of incident HTN, while the risk was lower for protease inhibitor use. Stavudine and efavirenz were associated with an increased RR of developing HTN, while tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, darunavir/ritonavir, and atazanavir/ ritonavir were associated with a decreased risk of developing HTN. Additionally, older age, higher body mass index (BMI), and having hepatitis C were associated with an increased risk for developing HTN, while women and participants with a higher baseline CD4 count were at a decreased risk of developing HTN at 48 weeks. One third of these ART naive participants developed HTN after ART initiation. NNRTIs, notably efavirenz, and stavudine were associated with an increased risk of HTN. Additional factors associated with HTN included traditional factors like older age and higher BMI, and advanced HIV disease (lower CD4 count). (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00001137).
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    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Siddiqui M; Moore TJ; Long DM; Burkholder GA; Willig A; Wyatt C; Heath S; Muntner P; Overton ET
  • Start Page

  • 735
  • End Page

  • 742
  • Volume

  • 38
  • Issue

  • 9